Kotlin Christmas


A 3 minute read written by
Vegard Veiset

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Kotlin contracts are a way to help the compiler get more information about what the code actually does. Sometimes the compiler can’t infer all the information we as programmers know.

What are they? What do they mean? Where can we find them? Let's take a look at an example to get an idea of what contracts are good for.

fun getLength(str: String?): Int = str!!.length
val str: String? = "hello"
val length: Int = getLength(str)
str.toUpperCase() // compilation error

As we have given str the type of a nullable String the compiler can’t know that str.toUpperCase is a safe operation here, even though we know that str is clearly never null. How can we use contracts to help us with this?

fun getLength(str: String?): Int {
    contract { returns() implies (str != null) }
    return str!!.length

val str: String? = "hello"
val length: Int = getLength(str)
str.toUpperCase() // now compiles

What is this magic? str.toUpperCase() now compiles. This is because we have told the compiler, or given it a contract, that says if getLength returns anything str cannot possibly be null. To share this arcane knowledge about our software with the compiler we placed a contract inside the getLength function. We have told the compiler that str cannot be null with returns() implies (str != null). Nothing stops us from sending in an actual null-value to getLength and breaking everything, but by using a contract we promise not to do that!

With contracts we describe behaviour we expect to happen using information the compiler doesn't know about. This means it is not necessarily correct, but it's a guarantee, or a contract, we give the compiler.

The returns statement inside the contract can be used to tell the behaviour we expect for when the function returns either true, false or null. Let's explore that, what happens if we give the compiler something thats only true for some cases?

fun isUpperCase(arg: String?): Boolean {
    contract { returns(true) implies (arg != null) }
    return arg?.capitalize() == arg ?: false

val nullable: String? = "hello"
when (isUpperCase(nullable)) {
    true -> nullable.toUpperCase()
    false -> nullable?.toLowerCase()

When isUpperCase returns true we can be sure that our nullable string isn't null because we know the inner workings of our isUpperCase function, and while it's false we simply don't know and have to do an actual null-check. The point here is that we have helped the compiler with some extra information, so it has the same assumptions as we have.

There are also some other cool things we can do with contracts, namely give information about how we invoke a code block.

fun <T> once(block: () ->T) {
    contract { callsInPlace(block, InvocationKind.EXACTLY_ONCE) }

val x: Int
once {
    x = 10

Using callsInPlace we can give information about how we use the block-lambda passed to our once function. In this case we are saying that we will invoke it EXACTLY_ONCE. This allows us to assign a val inside a different scope, where we normally can’t infer anything about how many times it would be called. For all the compiler knows the function could have looked something like this:

fun <T> once(block: () ->T) {

Without using contracts and implying that we only call the lambda once, we would get an error when trying to assign a value inside a different function scope. This is since the lambda might be called twice and we would try to reassign a val, which is a no-no.

If you look through the standard library you find contracts used a lot. And if we look at the source code of let we can see contracts being used.

public inline fun <T, R> T.let(block: (T) -> R): R {
    contract {
        callsInPlace(block, InvocationKind.EXACTLY_ONCE)
    return block(this)

This contract is what what allows us to write something like:

val myInt: Int
str.let {
    myInt = 45

Again, this is because we as programmers have given the compiler a guarantee that { myInt = 45 } will only be invoked once. Neat.

A pitfall with contracts is that you might give the compiler the wrong idea, leading to unhappy times. Contracts are still experimental and personally I haven’t found too many uses for them in day to day development, but they are a cool feature that I hope we see expanded in the future.

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